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2020年11月 4日 (水)

Take-over evaluation by driving simulator (1)

The practical application of the automated driving in proportion to the technology level is advanced. The following 6 levels proposed in SAE J3016 are de facto for this level of technology.

・Level 0 (manual operation) No self-driving element; driver controls all operations.
・Level 1 (driver assistance) Partial automation of operational control of drivers
・Level 2 (partial automated driving) Automates operational control under driver supervision.
・Level 3 (conditional automated driving) conditional autopilot, driver backs up.
・Level 4 (highly automated driving) automated driving is possible, however a driver is required and manual mode is available.
・Level 5 (fully automated driving) autonomous in all situations, no driver required.

So-called automated driving is a level 3 or higher that can run without driver monitoring and is called highly automated driving. The critical difference between Level 2 and Level 3 is that when an accident occurs while driving in the autonomous driving mode, the responsibility for the accident rests with the driver because Level 2 was under the driver's supervision, and with Level 3 there is no driver's supervision, so the responsibility for the accident rests with the manufacturer providing the automated driving.

There are five issues to be addressed in realizing highly automated driving: handling of insufficient sensor performance, take-over, mixing of manual and automated driving, responsibility for traffic accidents issues, and ethical issues. Among these issues, the driving simulator can be used for take-over and ethical issues.

Let's start with a take-over. Take-over means that the automated driving state is taken and the driver changes to manual operation. Take-over is possible up to automated driving level 4 because the steering and pedals are mounted. Let's take a look at the level of self-driving from a takeover perspective.

The automated driving level is classified by SAE in six stages from the conventional manual operation of level 0 to the full automated driving of level 5. When the level is changed, there are three kinds of items which have an effect: vehicle control, peripheral monitoring, and response in case of system troubles. In Level 1, vehicle control is performed by automated driving and driver in cooperation, in Level 2, vehicle control is performed by automated driving, in Level 3, peripheral monitoring is added, and in Level 4, response in case of system troubles is added. Although the functions of the levels 4 and 5 are the same, the level 5 does not require a driver, so that driving operational devices such as a steering wheel and pedals are not required.

Thus, take-over occurs at levels 2 and 3. However, even at level 4, since the driver can operate this vehicle, it is expected take-over is possible. Let's see how a take-over is done at each level of automated driving. Of course, level 0 is irrelevant, therefore from level 1.

Level 1 is the advanced driver assistance system itself, such as ACC. During follow-up driving, the driver can take-over freely at any time, and it is often left to the automated driving control when the situation becomes possible to support the operation from the manual operation.

At Level 2, all driving control can be left to the vehicle, increasing the opportunity for take-over. There is no particular problem in a situation where the driver actively takes over at his own will and enjoys driving beyond the driving control performed by the automated driving. The problem is that the automated driving requests the driver to take-over when the driver is not concentrating on monitoring the surroundings while the automated driving is controlling the operation. Automated driving requests for take-over when control is difficult. However, there is a concern that the driver might not be in a take-over situation.

 

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